Requests with a reason (i.e. a "because" in the sentence) are far more likely to be complied with.
Contrast Principle: price comparison example - amount feels less next to large amount. Show/sell expensive item first. Example of estate agents showing dump house, first. The "setup properties" which because of the comparison principle causes the actual properties to appear more desirable.
Negotiation: extreme demand then steady retreats back.
Feel obligation to repay after favour. For example, giving subject a coke then asking to purchase raffle ticket.
Reciprocity outweighed whether subjects liked seller or not. For example, free sampling at supermarkets.
Reciprocal feeling of obligation can be paid back by larger amounts.
Concession reciprocation: obligation to repay with concession someone has made us a concession
Rejection then retreat strategy: make large request to be rejected, present lesser request as concession. For example, request referral after sale refused or study selling $3,000 pool table first.
Negotiating Strategy: 3 approaches:
1. Extreme demand, no movement back
2. Reasonable demand, no movement back
3. Extreme demand, steady retreats back
Number 3, extreme demand then steady retreats back returned best results, plus:
- opponent felt most responsible for result. Felt dictated and created optimal outcome
- opponent felt most satisfied with result
Commitment and Consistency
Once made commitment, will act according to commitment (to avoid cognitive dissonance). For example, after betting on a horse, more confident at prospects.
We feel drive to be and look consistent according to decision.
Key is commitment:
- For example, a survey asking what would do if asked to volunteer. After saying yes, actually asked a few days later. 70% increase in volunteers.
An example Chinese compliance strategy in Korean War. Start with small compliance first, eventually obtain large compliances.
Sales: obtain commitment by starting with small sale.
Small commitments can be used to impact a persons view of herself. Once commitment is made, people will act according to this self-image. For example, prospects into customers.
Action is key, and public commitments are more effective. For example, study with students, one writing public, one writing private and one just thinking. Each one progressively less effective.
Commitment most effective when active, public and effortful. Another example initiation rituals into select clubs. A powerful element is person owns what they have done. Must be done yourself, not for something else like charity.
Commitment exists even after inducement has been removed. For example, low-balling in car sales: low-offer made for trade-in followed by decision, later error in offer but commitment already there.
One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct.
Applies to the way we see correct behaviour. For example, canned laughter or full tip jar.
- tendency to see an action as more appropriate when others are doing it. Example of children scared of dogs seeing other kids playing with dogs.
The greater the number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct. Example of cult changing emphasis to recruiting members after belief system crashed when prophesy of doom did not occur.
- when uncertain, unclear what to do etc, most likely to look to and accept the actions of others as correct
- everyone looking to everyone (i.e. everyone looking for social proof) can lead to pluralistic ignorance/bystanders apathy
- another important condition is similarity. Principle of social proof works must powerfully when observing the behaviour of people just like us.
"Liking bond between friends"
Most prefer to say yes to the requests of someone we know and like.
For example, Tupperware party requests coming from host.
- an "endless chain": once say like a product, can be pressed for names of people who would also appreciate learning about product - friend "who suggested I call on you" -> coming from friend they like
Steps to Liking
- Physical attractiveness is extremely important
- Similarity is important: for example, dress, background or interests
- Compliments - Joe (car salesman) sending a card that said "I like you"
- Contact and Cooperation: like things familiar
- Conditions and Associations: like people that bring good news because of associations
- connect products of salesperson to things we like. For example, models in TV ads or celebrity endorsements.
Obtain what you want over a meal (food):
- if you pay reciprocity rule too
- people become fonder of people and things they experienced while they are eating "Luncheon technique".
Deep-seated duty to authority within us all.
For example, Milgram experiments where person responds and continues to provide shocks to learner, as part of "experiment" (Uni, white coat, Professor study giving orders when subjects thought better of orders etc).
It is enough for authority to come through connotation, not content. For example, people using doctors in ads or someone in a white coat to sell medical products.
- symbols over substance
- title (the more tile, the higher perceived height-stature!) For example doctor, professors.
- clothes (uniform, but suit too) - finely styled, expensive
- trappings (jewellery, cars)
Example of Vincent the waiter at group tables: recommending lower meal (authority, trustworthiness reciprocity) and then adding on heaps of things over remaining wine, desert)
- reciprocity + credible authority
- if scarce, much more likely to take up
- opportunity more valuable when availability is limited
People are more motivated by the thought of losing something than by the thought of gaining something of equal value
- "limited numbers" tactic, "deadline" tactic
- whenever free choice threatened or limited, the need to retain freedoms makes us desire them significantly more than previously
- recognition of ourselves as individuals
- especially in teenage years. For example, more likely to resist censorship, and desire censored material than before
We also value things that have recently become less available, over those that have been consistently scarce. For example, more likely to revolt if previously had some degree of quality society, rather than constantly poor.
- also, things are more in demands when scarcity through the process of social demand